Alistair Sinclair asked me to post the following.
For #2; note that those with existing postdoc positions are eligible (the Simons people hope they'll be able to arrange a one-semester leave); positions are valid up to 6 years from PhD, so junior faculty are also OK.
The newly created Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing at UC Berkeley has recently posted the following announcements:
1. Details of programs for academic year 2013-14: http://simons.berkeley.edu
2. Research Fellow positions (application deadline Jan 15, 2013): http://simons.berkeley.edu/fellows.html
[Opportunities for outstanding junior scientists to spend one or two semesters at the Institute in academic year 2013-14, in connection with one of its programs.]
3. Call for program proposals (deadline Dec 15, 2012): http://simons.berkeley.edu/submit_proposal.html
[An invitation for groups of researchers to submit proposals for programs in the broad area of theory of computing and its relationship to other fields - typically one semester in length - to run at the Institute during Fall 2014, Spring 2015 or Fall 2015.]
Please follow the links above for details.